The reserve red wall is a typical botanical reserve, created to preserve the floristic richness of Chernatitsa / -Prispanska area in the middle part of the Rhodope Mountain. The reserve was established in 1962 with a total area of 229.5 ha in the place of the site deleted in 1956 the Reserve of Bachkovs monastery. Later the territory was expanded three times and now covers 3,029 hectares, located on the lands in the village of Bachkovo, the Village of Dobrostan and the Village of Lucky. In 1977 the Reserve was included in the list of biosphere reserves under the UNESCO “Man and Biosphere “.
“Red Wall” is distinguished for an exceptional variety of plant species depends on the specific combination of geological history, geomorphologic formations and climatic conditions of the Rhodopes. There are 645 species of plants identified and concentration of taxa he ranks first place among the studied so far such protected areas in Bulgaria. There are a total of 96 endemic plant species and subspecies established in the Reserve. From the plants found in the territory of the reserve – thirty-eight species are included in Bulgaria’s Red Book – five in the category “endangered” and the rest – with “rare”, 21 of them are Balkan endemics. Almost all are included in the European list of rare, endangered and endemic plants (IUCN) and are protected by the Bulgarian legislation.
In the reserve are found 63 bird species 17 are included in the Red Book of Bulgaria.